Muscle atrophy is the wasting or loss of muscle tissue.
Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles
There are two types of muscle atrophy.
- Disuse atrophy occurs from a lack of physical activity. In most people, muscle atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough. People with seated jobs, medical conditions that limit their movement, or decreased activity levels can lose muscle tone and develop atrophy. This type of atrophy can be reversed with exercise and better nutrition. Bedridden people can have significant muscle wasting. Astronauts who are away from the Earth's gravity can develop decreased muscle tone after just a few days of weightlessness.
- The most severe type of muscle atrophy is neurogenic atrophy. It occurs when there is an injury to, or disease of, a nerve that connects to the muscle. This type of muscle atrophy tends to occur more suddenly than disuse atrophy.
Examples of diseases affecting the nerves that control muscles:
Although people can adapt to muscle atrophy, even minor muscle atrophy usually causes some loss of movement or strength.
Some muscle atrophy occurs normally with aging. Other causes may include:
An exercise program (under the direction of a therapist or doctor) is recommended to help treat muscle atrophy. This may include exercises in water to reduce the muscle workload, and other types of rehabilitation.
People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your doctor for an appointment if you have unexplained or long-term muscle loss. You can often see this when you compare one hand, arm, or leg to the other.
What to Expect at Your Office Visit
The health care provider will perform a physical examination and ask questions about your medical history and symptoms, including:
- When did the muscle atrophy begin?
- Is it getting worse?
- What other symptoms do you have?
The doctor will look at your arms and legs and measure muscle size to try to determine which nerve or nerves are affected.
Tests that may be performed include:
Treatment may include physical therapy, ultrasound therapy and, in some cases, surgery to correct a contracture.
Chinnery PF. Muscle Diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 429.
Joseph V. Campellone, M.D., Division of Neurology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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